Parenting time (formerly access)
Parenting time (formerly access) is the right to visit—or be visited by—your children. It also means the right to get information on your child’s health, education and well being.
People often get confused by decision-making responsibility (formerly custody) and parenting time. Decision-making responsibility is when you have the right to make decisions about how to care for and raise your child. For more information, please visit the decision-making responsibility page.
Types of parenting time (formerly access)
- Fixed or specified parenting time
- Visits happen at regular, set times.
- Reasonable parenting time
- Visits are left open and flexible. Parents can make arrangements that can be easily changed if the situation changes.
- Supervised parenting time
- Visits must happen with someone else present because the parent has:
- A drinking or drug problem
- Abused the child
- Abused the other parent
- Threatened or tried to take the child away from the other parent
A supervised visit provides a safe setting for visits between a child and the parent who doesn’t have decision-making responsibility or for another family member.
Visits must be either supervised by a third party or held at a supervised access centre.
- No parenting time
- In cases where child abuse has been proven or where the child’s safety cannot be protected, a parent might not have any parenting time with the child.
How can Legal Aid help?
Find out if you’re eligible for legal aid help.
If you qualify for legal aid help on your day at court
There are lawyers at the courthouse called duty counsel. They can help you with:
- Drafting and preparing documents for urgent or without notice matters or where you are unable to complete court documents because of mental or physical health or literacy issues
- Reviewing agreements from mediation
- First appearance at court
- First case conference for applications, responses and motions to change
There are family law information centres in most of the courthouses. A lawyer who can give you advice is known as family advice counsel. They can:
- Give you general information about how to choose a lawyer and how best to use the help of a lawyer
- Give you up to 20 minutes of advice and information about the court process and on family matters
If you qualify for a lawyer to represent you in court
We may cover the cost of a lawyer to help with your parenting time/contact case if:
- You or your child fear for your safety from your ex
- The way your ex is behaving is hurting your relationship with your child
- You worry that your ex will kidnap your child
- You have recently separated and there is no parenting order between you and your ex
- Your ex is refusing to allow you to see/visit the child/children
If you are a grandparent seeking decision-making responsibility or contact and you are financially eligible, we may cover the cost of a lawyer who will help Legal Aid determine if your case has a good chance of succeeding.
If you don’t qualify for legal aid
JusticeNet is a not-for-profit service that provides an easy-to-use online directory of legal professionals who offer services to eligible clients at reduced rates. There is a $25 registration fee to access the directory.
For more information visit their website at justicenet.ca.
Factors to consider for claiming parenting time/contact (formerly access)
If you’re claiming parenting time/contact, consider:
- What is the current parenting time/contact schedule?
- Who do the children stay with during holidays?
- Do the visits have to be supervised? And why?
How is parenting time/contact (formerly access) decided?
The judge will use the “best interest of the child” test. The judge will look at:
- The emotional ties between the child and the claimant
- The views and preferences of the child
- How long the child has lived in a stable home
- How able and willing each claimant is to provide the child with guidance, education, and the necessities of life and to address the special needs of the child
- Any proposed plans for care and upbringing
- how permanent and stable the proposed family unit is
- Whether that person can take on the roles and responsibilities of a parent
- Any familial relationship between the child and each person who is party to the application
How do you start an application for parenting time or contact?
Step 1: Prepare your court application form
You have to apply for access in the jurisdiction where your child usually lives. To do so, you will need to complete the following forms:
- Form 8 Application (General)
Need help to complete this form? Visit StepstoJustice.ca and use the Guided Pathways tool.
- Form 35.1 Affidavit (decision-making responsibility, parenting time, contact)
Step 2: Get your application issued
Take at least three copies of all of your documents to the court clerks.
If you are going to the Ontario Court of Justice, go to the family counter.
If you are going to the Superior Court of Justice, take a number and go to the registrar’s office.
You will get your file number and a notice to attend a Mandatory Information Program session for both you and the other party. The session gives you an overview of family law issues and the family court process.
You can find more information on our page about starting a family court case.
Step 3: Serve your application
You must get someone else to give a copy of all the documents that you have filed with the court as well as the Mandatory Information Program notice and give them to the other party. You cannot serve these documents. You must have someone who is at least 18 years old—this could be a friend or family member or a professional server—hand deliver a copy to your ex.
You will also have to file proof that you have given these documents to the other party. This is called an affidavit of service.
Step 4: Complete proof of service
Proof of service is known as an affidavit of service. It’s a document that shows that all the documents were successfully given to the other party.
The affidavit will list the time and date the documents were served, and also how it was served and who did the serving.
An affidavit of service is important. If the other party says they haven’t been notified, this affidavit proves that they were.
Include any supporting documents. For example, if you mail a claim by registered mail, print off the delivery confirmation including the signature verifying the receipt from the Canada Post website. If you send it by courier, include the delivery confirmation with signature provided by the commercial courier company.
This form needs to be signed in front of a notary or a commissioner for taking affidavits. There is a fee of $21 for this service. If you need help finding a commissioner or notary to do this service, ask the court clerk for help.
Make sure you come to the commissioner with ID and the unsigned document.
Your ex doesn’t need to sign anything.
Form 6B needs to be filed in your continuing record at the courthouse.
Step 5: File your court documents
Take all of your original documents to the family court clerk and put them into your continuing record, which is a record kept at the courthouse with all of the documents that you have filed and want the court to look at.
You will have to update your table of contents, which is a list that includes every form and document that you have added to your court file.
If you’re unsure about anything, ask the clerk for help.
- CLEO: Separation and Divorce: Making Decisions and Spending Time With Children
- Ministry of the Attorney General: Parenting time, decision-making responsibility and contact
- Steps to Justice: Decision-making and time with children